What’s happening when a match is lit? From Answers.com:
Matches contain sulfur, glass powder, and an oxidizing agent as the components in the match head. When you strike a match, the friction due to the particles of glass powder rubbing together generates enough heat to convert some of the red phosphorous to white phosphorous, which burns in the presence of oxygen gas. The heat from the friction also causes the oxidizing agent to produce oxygen gas, igniting the small amount of white phosphorous. Once ignited, the oxygen gas fuels the flame while the rest of the sulfur catches on fire. Of course, this entire process happens in a fraction of a second.
How can we know the size, composition, and atmospheric makeup of distant exoplanets? NASA explains the details in this Alien Atmospheres video.
By observing periodic variations in the parent star’s brightness and color, astronomers can indirectly determine an exoplanet’s distance from its star, its size, and its mass. But to truly understand an exoplanet astronomers must study its atmosphere, and they do so by splitting apart the parent star’s light during a planetary transit.
This unusual underwater journey in South Africa involves kayaking legend, French expat, and mad inventor Olivier Feuillette, and a modified kayak. With a waterproof top, a ballast (so that it will sink), scuba tanks for oxygen, a CO2 filter, an oscillating fishtail, and pedals, Feuillette’s SUBO becomes a one-person submarine that’s ready to go where no kayak has gone before.
A vortex ring is the phenomenon where a quantity of fluid or gas in a toroid (donut) shape, travels through a medium of fluid or gas, while spinning like a thick circular bracelet that is being rolled off of a person’s arm. (Except the spin is in the opposite direction as when a bracelet is rolled off in this way.)