This is Minesaki Sougo’s Tumbling doll, a mechanical toy made for the wealthy during Japan’s Edo period, from 1603-1868. The craft of making automata (self-operating machines) is known in Japan as Karakuri, meaning “mechanisms” or “trick”.
Here’s another Japanese tumbling doll video via automata-maker Dug North:
Bonus: The Slinky Machine.
via Dug North.