(぀◔ΰ±ͺβ—”)γ€β”β˜†οΎŸ.*ο½₯q゚ The 2023 TKSST Gift Guide βœ©Β°ο½‘β‹†ο½₯゚ Β 
Get smart curated videos delivered to your inbox.   SUBSCRIBE
The Kid Should See This

Why Do Flowers Exist? Gymnosperms, angiosperms, and how seeds evolved

Watch more with these video collections:

How do seeds travel from one place to another? Why do flowers have different colors and shapes, and how do some turn into fruits? How did these two types of reproduction evolve? And why are seeds and flowers important to plants, animals, and humans?

In episode 9 of Crash Course Botany, American forager and cook Alexis Nikole Nelson introduces the plant kingdom’s evolutionary innovators: angiosperms and gymnosperms.

Evolution of Gymnosperms
Discover the remarkable evolution of seeds and the dispersal mechanisms that revolutionized plant reproduction. Delve deeper into flower structures and the intricate dance of co-evolution between insects and flowering plants.

“When gymnosperms, or seed-bearing plants, appeared, they opened up entirely new habitats and ecological opportunities for plants. And then, angiosperms, which bear flowers and fruits, came up with even more innovations for protecting and spreading those seeds.”

Plus, learn about Dr. Else Marie Friis, who discovered ancient flower fossils in rocks that were millions of years old and used them as valuable clues about the history of plants on Earth.

the anatomy of a flower

“Because of their evolutionary advantages, these two types of plants dominate Earth’s ecosystems, shaping how virtually every other organism lives and interacts.”

In fact, we interact with gymnosperms and angiosperms every day, even when we don’t know it; we depend on these two groups of plants for clothing, shelter, and foods like kale, rice, apples, carrots, and soybeans.

“Flowers and fruits helped the angiosperms reach a level of evolutionary success and ecological dominance that hasn’t been repeated in the history of plants. There are around 300,000 species of angiosperms today, compared to just 1,000 gymnosperm species. That’s a ratio of 300 to one.”

animals assist with seed dispersal
Find more lessons and info on Crash Course’s Botany playlist, at TheCrashCourse.com, and at PBS.org.

Watch more videos about seeds, seed dispersal, flowers, pollination, mutualism, and evolution, including:
β€’Β Symbiosis & a surprising tale of species cooperation
β€’Β Gymnosperm Life Cycle: How do pine trees reproduce?
β€’Β Exploding plants disperse seeds with high pressure bursts
β€’Β Story of Flowers, a breathtaking botanical animation
β€’Β Acorn by Madeline Sharafian
β€’ Why is biodiversity so important?

And ICYMI: What is Botany? Alexis Nikole Nelson explains

🌈 Watch these videos next...

Why Do Tumbleweeds Tumble?

Rion Nakaya

Why are wasps just as wonderful as bees?

Rion Nakaya

What’s an Engineer? + The Engineering Process – Crash Course Kids

Rion Nakaya

What is the scientific method? – Crash Course Biology

Rion Nakaya

What is Life? Dr. Samuel Ramsey explains with Crash Course Biology

Rion Nakaya

What is Botany? Alexis Nikole Nelson explains with Crash Course Botany

Rion Nakaya

What is an Animal? Rae Wynn-Grant explains with Crash Course Zoology

Rion Nakaya

What is a constellation? – Crash Course Kids

Rion Nakaya

What are rocks and how do they form?

Rion Nakaya