Every YouTube video has a unique ID based on a counting system called Base 64. Randomly generated, that Base 64 ID allows YouTube to have a unique yet short url by using the alphabet in lowercase and uppercase plus two symbols: – and _. With 11 characters to work with in the video ID, or 64 to the 11th power, that would be “enough for every single human on planet earth to upload a video every minute for around 18,000 years”.

Tom Scott explains the math behind this smart tech in youtu.be/gocwRvLhDf8, also known as Will YouTube Ever Run Out Of Video IDs?

There are more math videos in the archives, including: How many LEGO combinations can be made with 6 standard bricks?

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